To examine whether the different patterns of post-load insulin secretion can identify the heterogeneity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Six hundred twenty-five inpatients with T2DM at Jining No. 1 People’s Hospital were recruited from January 2019 to October 2021. The 140 g steamed bread meal test (SBMT) was conducted on patients with T2DM, and glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were recorded at 0, 60, 120, and 180 min. To avoid the effect of exogenous insulin, patients were categorized into three different classes by latent class trajectory analysis based on the post-load secretion patterns of C-peptide. The difference in short- and long-term glycemic status and prevalence of complications distributed among the three classes were compared by multiple linear regression and multiple logistic regression, respectively.
There were significant differences in long-term glycemic status (e. g., HbA1c) and short-term glycemic status (e. g., mean blood glucose, time in range) among the three classes. The difference in short-term glycemic status was similar in terms of the whole day, daytime, and nighttime. The prevalence of severe diabetic retinopathy and atherosclerosis showed a decreasing trend among the three classes.
The post-load insulin secretion patterns could well identify the heterogeneity of patients with T2DM in short- and long-term glycemic status and prevalence of complications, providing recommendations for the timely adjustment in treatment regimes of patients with T2DM and promotion of personalized treatment.

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