Journal of medical case reports 2018 02 0112(1) 24 doi 10.1186/s13256-017-1559-x
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a neurotoxic condition that occurs as a result of the failure of posterior circulatory autoregulation in response to acute changes in blood pressure. Overperfusion with resultant disruption of the blood-brain barrier results in vasogenic edema, but not infarction. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome can be the presenting feature of postinfectious glomerulonephritis, which has been reported in approximately 5% of hospitalized children, and it has been reported in very few cases of adult patients with sickle cell anemia. We report a very rare case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome that occurred in a child with sickle cell anemia. This presentation should be differentiated from other neurologic manifestations that occur in patients with sickle cell anemia, because management is totally different.
We report what is to our knowledge the first reported case of a 9-year-old Saudi girl with sickle cell anemia who developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome secondary to asymptomatic poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. This occurred after full recovery from acute chest syndrome and severe vaso-occlusive crisis.
The purpose of this report is to emphasize that all efforts should be made to explore the causes of different neurologic manifestations that occur in patients with sickle cell anemia, because this will require different pathways of management.