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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI) as a rare complication of severe diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report and review of the literature.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI) as a rare complication of severe diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report and review of the literature.
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Nao J, Zhang H, Wu S, Zhang X, Zheng D,


Nao J, Zhang H, Wu S, Zhang X, Zheng D, (click to view)

Nao J, Zhang H, Wu S, Zhang X, Zheng D,

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Child’s nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery 2018 01 12() doi 10.1007/s00381-018-3724-y
Abstract
INTRODUCTION
In addition to diffuse brain oedema, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can lead to ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, extrapontine myelinolysis, and sinovenous thrombosis. However, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and spinal cord oedema are rarely reported in patients with DKA.

METHODS
We present a case of a 17-year-old-girl who developed headache, blurred vision, and paraplegia after her DKA was controlled. Sequential magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the brain and spinal cord were performed.

RESULTS
Brain MR showed large patchy lesions in the bilateral white matter of the parieto-occipital lobes, which had high T2 signal intensity and low T1 signal intensity. MR scanning of the spinal cord showed longitudinal confluent central spinal cord T2 hyperintensity spanning seven thoracic spinal segments. With symptomatic treatment, the patient’s headache and vision disturbance subsided within 1 week. Subsequent MR scans demonstrated that the lesion in the spinal cord had decreased significantly in 10 days, and the large patchy lesions in the brain disappeared completely in 2 months. Her paraplegia improved gradually without obvious sequela 3 months later. The evolution of the disease and radiological findings supported the diagnosis of PRES with spinal cord involvement.

CONCLUSION
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report describing PRES with spinal cord involvement as a complication of DKA. PRES is a rare complication that should be considered along with other neurological complications of DKA when focal deficits appear.

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