Epidemiological evidences have shown an association of exposure to pesticides or heavy metals with increased incidences of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans. Exposure to pesticides or metals during the decisive period of the brain development increases the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons upon re-exposure in adult rodents. However, the effect of early life exposure to pesticide on the heavy metal-induced neurodegeneration or heavy metal on pesticide-induced neurodegeneration is not yet explored. The current study explored the effect of developmental exposure to zinc (Zn), a metal or paraquat (PQ), a pesticide on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of rats challenged to Zn or PQ during adulthood. Exposure of Zn or PQ during adulthood alone exhibited marked reduction in motor activities, striatal dopamine and metabolites, glutathione content and number of dopaminergic neurons. However, the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts were increased. While the expression of vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and tyrosine hydroxylase were attenuated, dopamine transporter and microglial marker Iba-1 expression, activated microglia, nuclear factor-kappa B activation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-3/9 activation were augmented following Zn or PQ exposure. Albeit postnatal alone exposure did not alter any of the studied parameters, the developmental administration of Zn/PQ in re-challenged adult rats produced more pronounced changes in the aforementioned variables as compared with adulthood Zn or PQ alone intoxicated animals. The results demonstrate that postnatal Zn/PQ intoxication dents the oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death and dopamine metabolism and storage regulating machineries, which speed up the toxicant-induced degeneration during adulthood.
September 28, 2020
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation and Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation Render Comparable Outcomes in the Setting of Failed Marrow Stimulation.
February 14, 2020
January 14, 2021
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- Psych Congress 2019The annual Psych Congress, held in San Diego, California, from October 3-6, 2019, brings together members of the entire mental health team, including psychiatrists, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, psychologists, and primary care physicians, with experts in mental health to improve patient outcomes through education.