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Potent In Vivo NK Cell-Mediated Elimination of HIV-1-Infected Cells Mobilized by a gp120-Bispecific and Hexavalent Broadly Neutralizing Fusion Protein.

Potent In Vivo NK Cell-Mediated Elimination of HIV-1-Infected Cells Mobilized by a gp120-Bispecific and Hexavalent Broadly Neutralizing Fusion Protein.
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Bardhi A, Wu Y, Chen W, Li W, Zhu Z, Zheng JH, Wong H, Jeng E, Jones J, Ochsenbauer C, Kappes JC, Dimitrov DS, Ying T, Goldstein H,


Bardhi A, Wu Y, Chen W, Li W, Zhu Z, Zheng JH, Wong H, Jeng E, Jones J, Ochsenbauer C, Kappes JC, Dimitrov DS, Ying T, Goldstein H, (click to view)

Bardhi A, Wu Y, Chen W, Li W, Zhu Z, Zheng JH, Wong H, Jeng E, Jones J, Ochsenbauer C, Kappes JC, Dimitrov DS, Ying T, Goldstein H,

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Journal of virology 2017 09 2791(20) pii 10.1128/JVI.00937-17

Abstract

Antibodies bound to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein expressed by infected cells mobilize antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate the HIV-1-infected cells and thereby suppress HIV-1 infection and delay disease progression. Studies treating HIV-1-infected individuals with latency reactivation agents to reduce their latent HIV-1 reservoirs indicated that their HIV-1-specific immune responses were insufficient to effectively eliminate the reactivated latent HIV-1-infected T cells. Mobilization of ADCC may facilitate elimination of reactivated latent HIV-1-infected cells to deplete the HIV-1 reservoir and contribute to a functional HIV-1 cure. The most effective antibodies for controlling and eradicating HIV-1 infection would likely have the dual capacities of potently neutralizing a broad range of HIV-1 isolates and effectively mobilizing HIV-1-specific ADCC to eliminate HIV-1-infected cells. For this purpose, we constructed LSEVh-LS-F, a broadly neutralizing, defucosylated hexavalent fusion protein specific for both the CD4 and coreceptor gp120-binding sites. LSEVh-LS-F potently inhibited in vivo HIV-1 and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in humanized mouse and macaque models, respectively, including in vivo neutralization of HIV-1 strains resistant to the broadly neutralizing antibodies VRC01 and 3BNC117. We developed a novel humanized mouse model to evaluate in vivo human NK cell-mediated elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by ADCC and utilized it to demonstrate that LSEVh-LS-F rapidly mobilized NK cells to eliminate >80% of HIV-1-infected cells in vivo 1 day after its administration. The capacity of LSEVh-LS-F to eliminate HIV-1-infected cells via ADCC combined with its broad neutralization activity supports its potential use as an immunotherapeutic agent to eliminate reactivated latent cells and deplete the HIV-1 reservoir.IMPORTANCE Mobilization of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate reactivated latent HIV-1-infected cells is a strategy which may contribute to depleting the HIV-1 reservoir and achieving a functional HIV-1 cure. To more effectively mobilize ADCC, we designed and constructed LSEVh-LS-F, a broadly neutralizing, defucosylated hexavalent fusion protein specific for both the CD4 and coreceptor gp120-binding sites. LSEVh-LS-F potently inhibited in vivo HIV-1 and SHIV infection in humanized mouse and macaque models, respectively, including in vivo neutralization of an HIV-1 strain resistant to the broadly neutralizing antibodies VRC01 and 3BNC117. Using a novel humanized mouse model, we demonstrated that LSEVh-LS-F rapidly mobilized NK cells to eliminate >80% of HIV-1-infected cells in vivo 1 day after its administration. The capacity of LSEVh-LS-F to eliminate HIV-1-infected cells via ADCC combined with its broad neutralization activity supports its potential use as an immunotherapeutic agent to eliminate reactivated latent cells and deplete the HIV-1 reservoir.

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