Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with negative impacts on quality of life of patients. Although the etiology of the disease is still unclear, there are a set of mechanisms and factors involved in IBS pathogenesis. Visceral hypersensitivity, impaired gut barrier, along with minor inflammation and oxidative stress are the most important triggers for IBS induction. Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) has been shown to improve gut barrier, downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduce free radical production through antioxidative mechanisms, and exert anti-nociceptive effects against somatic pain. An electronic search in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Cochrane library was performed and relevant clinical, in vivo and in vitro articles published between 2004 and June 2020 were collected. Search terms included “Irritable Bowel Syndrome” OR “IBS” OR “visceral hypersensitivity” OR “motility dysfunction” AND “peroxisome proliferator activated receptors” OR “PPAR”. Herein, the efficacy of PPARγ signaling as a potential target for IBS treatment is reviewed.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.