Form deprivation myopia (FDM) is characterized by loss of choroidal thickness (ChT), reduced choroidal blood perfusion (ChBP), and consequently scleral hypoxia. In some tissues, changes in levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression modulate hypoxia-induced pathological responses. We determined if PPARγ modulates FDM through changes in ChT, ChBP, scleral hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α) that in turn regulate scleral collagen type 1 (COL1) expression levels in guinea pigs. Myopia was induced by occluding one eye, while the fellow eye served as control. They received daily peribulbar injections of either the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, or the GW1929 agonist, with or without ocular occlusion for 4 weeks. Ocular refraction and biometric parameters were estimated at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment. ChT and ChBP were measured at the 2- and 4-week time points. Western blot analysis determined the expression levels of scleral HIF-1α and COL1. GW9662 induced a myopic shift in unoccluded eyes. Conversely, GW1929 inhibited FDM progression without affecting the refraction in unoccluded eyes. GW9662 reduced both ChT and ChBP in unoccluded eyes, while GW1929 inhibited their declines in occluded eyes. Scleral HIF-1α expression rose in GW9662-treated unoccluded eyes whereas GW1929 reduced HIF-1α upregulation in occluded eyes. GW9662 downregulated scleral COL1 expression in unoccluded eyes, while GW1929 reduced their decreases in occluded eyes. Therefore, PPARγ modulates collagen expression levels and FDM through an inverse relationship between changes in PPARγ and HIF-1α expression levels.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.