In this study, we investigated the possibility of predicting expression levels of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) using radiomic features of intratumoral and peritumoral tumors on computed tomography (CT) images. We retrospectively analyzed 161 patients with non-small cell lung cancer. We extracted radiomics features for intratumoral and peritumoral regions on CT images. The null importance, least absolute shrinkage, and selection operator model were used to select the optimized feature subset to build the prediction models for the PD-L1 expression level. LightGBM with five-fold cross-validation was used to construct the prediction model and evaluate the receiver operating characteristics. The corresponding area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the training and testing cohorts. The proportion of ambiguously clustered pairs was calculated based on consensus clustering to evaluate the validity of the selected features. In addition, Radscore was calculated for the training and test cohorts. For expression level of PD-L1 above 1%, prediction models that included radiomic features from the intratumoral region and a combination of radiomic features from intratumoral and peritumoral regions yielded an AUC of 0.83 and 0.87 and 0.64 and 0.74 in the training and test cohorts, respectively. In contrast, the models above 50% prediction yielded an AUC of 0.80, 0.97, and 0.74, 0.83, respectively. The selected features were divided into two subgroups based on PD-L1 expression levels ≥ 50% or ≥ 1%. Radscore was statistically higher for subgroup one than subgroup two when radiomic features for intratumoral and peritumoral regions were combined. We constructed a predictive model for PD-L1 expression level using CT images. The model using a combination of intratumoral and peritumoral radiomic features had a higher accuracy than the model with only intratumoral radiomic features.
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