To compare the diagnostic performance of ring-type dedicated breast PET (dbPET), whole-body PET (WBPET), and DCE-MRI for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
This prospective study included 29 women with histologically proven breast cancer on needle biopsy between July 2016 and July 2019 (age: mean 55 years; range 35-78). Patients underwent WBPET followed by ring-type dbPET and DCE-MRI pre- and post-NAC for preoperative evaluation. pCR was defined as an invasive tumor that disappeared in the breast. Standardized uptake values corrected for lean body mass (SULpeak) were calculated for dbPET and WBPET scans. Maximum tumor length was measured in DCE-MRI images. Reduction rates were calculated for quantitative evaluation. Two radiologists independently evaluated the qualitative findings. Reduction rates and qualitative findings were compared between the pCR (n = 7) and non-pCR (n = 22) groups for each modality. Differences in quantitative and qualitative data between the two groups were analyzed statistically.
Significant differences were observed in the reduction rates of dbPET and DCE-MRI (P = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively) between the two groups. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that SULpeak reduction rates in WBPET and dbPET (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively) and in dbPET (odds ratio, 16.00; 95% CI 1.57-162.10; P = 0.01) were significant indicators associated with pCR, respectively. No between-group differences were observed in qualitative findings in the three modalities.
SULpeak reduction rate of dbPET > 82% was an independent indicator associated with pCR after NAC in breast cancer.