Artificial intelligence (AI) and digital twin models of various systems have long been used in industry to test products quickly and efficiently. Use of digital twins in clinical medicine caught attention with the development of Archimedes, an AI model of diabetes, in 2003. More recently, AI models have been applied to the fields of cardiology, endocrinology, and undergraduate medical education. The use of digital twins and AI thus far has focused mainly on chronic disease management, their application in the field of critical care medicine remains much less explored. In neurocritical care, current AI technology focuses on interpreting electroencephalography, monitoring intracranial pressure, and prognosticating outcomes. AI models have been developed to interpret electroencephalograms by helping to annotate the tracings, detecting seizures, and identifying brain activation in unresponsive patients. In this mini-review we describe the challenges and opportunities in building an actionable AI model pertinent to neurocritical care that can be used to educate the newer generation of clinicians and augment clinical decision making.
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