To determine factors and barriers associated with scholarly activity among faculty members at urology residency programs in the United States.
An online survey was sent to all 134 urology residency program directors. The survey assessed program characteristics including size, location and definition of scholarly activity. It assessed available support for and barriers to resident scholarly activity, faculty participation in scholarly activity and mentorship of residents. Linear regression analysis was used.
We had a 40% response rate (N=40). Faculty attitudes toward conducting scholarly activity (p<0.001) and lack of a research curriculum (p=0.05) were barriers to the outcome 'participation in scholarly activity'. Faculty attitudes toward conducting scholarly activity was also a barrier to the outcomes 'mentorship of residents' (p=0.004) and 'publication of at least one paper' (p=0.004). Available statistician was positively associated with the outcomes 'publications' (p=0.062) and 'presentations' (p=0.032). A minimum requirement of a local presentation (p=0.04) and chairman support (p=0.015) were positively associated with the outcome 'presentation at a conference.'
Training residents in research matters for the resident, the institution and future generations of surgeon scientists. Higher levels of faculty scholarly activity were associated with a minimum requirement for residents to submit a manuscript for publication, strong chairman support for resident research, and the availability of a statistician. A common barrier to faculty scholarly activity, publications, and resident mentorship was faculty attitudes toward resident scholarly activity. Urology residency programs seeking to prioritize scholarly activity among faculty should consider these factors.

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