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Predictors of HIV virological failure and drug resistance in Chinese patients after 48 months of antiretroviral treatment, 2008-2012: a prospective cohort study.

Predictors of HIV virological failure and drug resistance in Chinese patients after 48 months of antiretroviral treatment, 2008-2012: a prospective cohort study.
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Kan W, Teng T, Liang S, Ma Y, Tang H, Zuohela T, Sun G, He C, Wall KM, Marconi VC, Liao L, Leng X, Liu P, Ruan Y, Xing H, Shao Y,


Kan W, Teng T, Liang S, Ma Y, Tang H, Zuohela T, Sun G, He C, Wall KM, Marconi VC, Liao L, Leng X, Liu P, Ruan Y, Xing H, Shao Y, (click to view)

Kan W, Teng T, Liang S, Ma Y, Tang H, Zuohela T, Sun G, He C, Wall KM, Marconi VC, Liao L, Leng X, Liu P, Ruan Y, Xing H, Shao Y,

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BMJ open 2017 09 077(9) e016012 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016012

Abstract
OBJECTIVE
To explore factors associated with HIV virological failure (VF) and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) among HIV-positive Chinese individuals 4 years after initiating first-line lamivudine-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) in 2008 at five sentinel sites.

DESIGN
First-line ART initiators who were previously treatment naïve were selected using consecutive ID numbers from the 2008 National Surveillance Database into a prospective cohort study. Questionnaires and blood samples were collected in 2011 and 2012 to assess the outcomes of interest: VF (defined as viral load ≥1000 copies/mL) and HIVDR (defined as VF with genetic drug-resistant mutations). Questionnaires and data from National Surveillance Database assessed demographics and drug adherence data.

RESULTS
536 individuals with HIV were analysed; the 4-year risk of VF was 63 (11.8%) and HIVDR was 27 (5.0%). Female participants initiating stavudine (D4T)-based regimens were more susceptible to both VF (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.5, 95% CI 1 to 6.1, p=0.04) and HIVDR (aOR=3.6, 95% CI 1 to 12.6, p=0.05) versus zidovudine-based regimens. Male participants missing doses in past month were more susceptible to both VF (aOR=2.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 7, p=0.03) and HIVDR (aOR=9.7, 95% CI 2.1 to 44.1, p<0.01). Participants of non-Han nationality were of increased risk for HIVDR (aOR from 4.8 to 12.2, p<0.05) and non-Han men were at increased risk for VF (aOR=2.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 7.3, p=0.02). All 27 participants detected with HIVDR had non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor mutations, 21 (77.8%) also had nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor mutations, and no protease inhibitor mutations were detected. CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest successful treatment outcomes at 4 years for roughly 90% of patients. We suggest conducting further study on whether and when to change ART regimen for women initiated with D4T-based regimen, and reinforcing adherence counselling for men. Increased VF and HIVDR risk among non-Han minorities warrants further exploration, and ethnic minorities may be an important group to tailor adherence-focused interventions.

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