We aimed to describe the clinical and histopathologic features of Castleman disease (CD), particularly emphasizing its associations with paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) and prognosis.
We retrospectively enrolled 123 CD patients at our center. Clinical, pathologic, and laboratory data were reviewed.
Fifty percent of the patients had PNP. Compared with those without PNP, patients with PNP-associated CD had more hyaline vascular (HV) variants (83.9% vs 57.4%), fewer mixed cellular variants (16.1% vs 24.6%), and no plasmacytic variants (0% vs 18.0%). Thirty-eight of 87 patients with the HV variant of CD (HV-CD) had stroma-rich (SR) features, and the incidence rate was higher in those with PNP-associated CD than in those without PNP (48.4% vs 13.1%, P < .001). The SR variant was associated with higher PNP-associated IgG titers than SR absence before surgery (median 1:160 vs 1:80, P = .019) or after surgery (median 1:160 vs 1:40, P = .013). The SR variant was also an unfavorable prognostic factor for CD survival in univariate analysis. The 3-year survival rates were 47.5% among those with PNP and 87.7% among those without PNP (P < .001).
PNP is associated with specific subtypes of CD and affects survival. The SR variant of HV-CD positively correlates with the incidence of PNP.

© American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2020. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.