In the present study, our aim was to ascertain the preoperative cardiac risk factors related to the in-hospital mortality in the elderly patients (aged over 65 years) who required preoperative cardiology consultation for hip fracture surgery.
The present study was a retrospective, single-centre study, which enrolled consecutive elderly patients without heart failure scheduled for hip fracture surgery in our institution. In all patients, an anesthesiologist performed a detailed preoperative evaluation and decided the need for the cardiac consultation. Patients underwent preoperative cardiac evaluation by a trained cardiologist using the algorithms proposed in the recent preoperative guidelines. The in-hospital mortality was the main outcome of the study.
In total, 277 elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery were enrolled in this analysis. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 12.1% (n=30 cases). In a multivariate analysis, we found that insulin dependency, cancer, urea, presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) (OR: 3.906; 95% CI 1.470 to 10.381; p=0.006) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) (OR: 1.057; 95% CI 1.016 to 1.100; p=0.006) were the predictors of in-hospital mortality. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal value of PASP in predicting the in-hospital mortality was 35 mm Hg (area under the curve=0.71; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.81, p<0.001) with sensitivity of 87.7% and specificity of 59.5%.
The present research found that the preoperative cardiac risk factors, namely AF and PASP, might be associated with increased in-hospital mortality in elderly patients without heart failure undergoing hip fracture surgery.

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