Clinical Background: Mental disorders, especially depression, are associated with several comorbidities in the kidneys. Depression is the psychiatric disorder that mostly affects individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease. Epidemiology: The mainly prescribed drugs involved in overdose cases are opioids, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants. Antidepressants are the main psychiatric drugs that lead to kidney injury, mainly the second-generation ones. However, the prevalence of depression in dialysis patients varies from 22.8 to 39.3%. Therefore, psychiatric patients have 1.5-3 times more hospitalization compared to patients having only CKD. Challenges: Randomized clinical studies should be encouraged. Studies have shown an association between depression and progression of kidney disease. The mechanisms are not completely clear, but changes on neurotransmitter release and endocrine functions appear to be related to it. Additionally, the use of antidepressant and other psychoactive drugs can induce kidney injury. Hyponatremia induced by second-generation antidepressant drugs is an important feature and can be a risk factor for elderly or patients with comorbidities such as cerebral edema, brain damage or coma. Besides this class, drugs used for anxiety and bipolar disorders or sympathomimetic drugs of abuse can trigger acute kidney injury, possibly due to endothelial dysfunction and thromboembolic and ischemic events. Prevention and Treatment: The early detection of renal impairment and the prescription of nephroprotective strategies has been a clinical challenge. Some studies aim to describe the biochemical mechanisms involved and develop clinical management strategies for these patients. This chapter brings attention to this topic, discussing the major mechanisms and clinical features of kidney injury associated with mental illness, and the most relevant clinical strategies.
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