This study states that Smoking is a significant modifiable risk factor in the pathogenesis of carotid artery disease and has been shown to be a predictor of worse outcomes after vascular surgery. However, the effect of active smoking on outcomes of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy is unknown. This study analyzed the outcomes of carotid endarterectomy by smoking status in a large national database.The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program targeted carotid endarterectomy files (2011-2017) were reviewed. Patients were stratified according to smoking status, and outcomes were compared using propensity score matching (1:1) based on preoperative characteristics. During the study period, 26,293 patients underwent carotid endarterectomy, with 19,282 (73.34%) nonsmokers and 7011 (26.66%) smokers. Smokers were more likely to be younger, to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to have a symptomatic presentation, and to have higher anatomic risk. Smokers are at increased risk for death after carotid endarterectomy compared with matched counterparts. Smoking should be considered an important risk factor for worse outcomes, and patients should be strongly counseled on the importance of smoking cessation before undergoing carotid endarterectomy.

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