: To investigate the prevalence, associations, and causes of visual impairment and blindness in the adult population of Hong Kong.: This cross-sectional population-based study included 2018 (870, 43% male) randomly selected adults with a mean age 52 ± 16 years (range 18-90 years) in Hong Kong. Each participant underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of each eye was recorded. Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness was calculated using both World Health Organization (WHO) and United States (US) definitions, based on BCVA and PVA.: Visual acuity measurements were available for 1952 (96.8%) participants. The prevalence of visual impairment, based on BCVA value, using WHO and US definition, was 1.0 ± 0.1% and 2.7 ± 0.4%, respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment, based on PVA value, was 5.1 ± 0.5% and 14.0 ± 0.8%, using WHO and US definition, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated the presence of visual impairment (PVA, WHO definition) increased significantly with older age (odds ratio 1.039, < .001) and thinner central cornea thickness (odds ratio 0.994, = .014), but not significantly associated with other socioeconomic, systemic or ocular parameters after adjusting for age and central corneal thickness. Under-correction of refractive error was the most common reason for presenting visual impairment. Causes of impaired BCVA were cataract (37%), age-related macular degeneration (26%), diabetic macular edema (11%), glaucoma (11%), epiretinal membrane (5%), and unknown (11%).: The prevalence of visual impairment in Hong Kong increased significantly with older age and thinner central corneal thickness. The major causes for impairment were under-correction of refractive error, cataract, and age-related macular degeneration.