Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in HIV, possibly mediated by systemic inflammation. Viral hepatitis coinfection can induce additional inflammation and hepatic dysfunction that may exacerbate low muscle mass. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for low muscle mass in HIV/viral hepatitis coinfection.
DESIGN AND METHODS
A cross-sectional study of participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and Women’s Interagency HIV Study with anthropometry performed after January 1, 2000. Viral hepatitis defined by positive hepatitis B virus surface antigen and/or hepatitis C virus RNA. Low muscle mass defined as <10 percentile of age- and sex-matched reference values for mid-upper arm circumference. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of: 1) the association of HIV/viral hepatitis coinfection with low muscle mass; and 2) factors associated with low muscle mass in coinfected persons. Analyses adjusted for age, race, body mass index, alcohol use and injection drug use (also, nadir CD4 and HIV RNA where appropriate). RESULTS
Among 3,518 participants (164 HIV/viral hepatitis; 223 viral hepatitis alone; 1,070 HIV alone; 2,061 uninfected), HIV/viral hepatitis-coinfected persons had a 3.50-fold (95% CI, 1.51-8.09), 1.93-fold (1.17-3.20), and 2.65-fold (1.62-4.35) higher odds of low muscle mass than viral hepatitis-monoinfected, HIV-monoinfected, and uninfected persons, respectively. Lack of HIV RNA suppression (OR: 2.26 [1.10-4.63]) was the only factor associated with low muscle mass in coinfected persons.
HIV/viral hepatitis-coinfected persons have a higher likelihood of low muscle mass than those with viral hepatitis monoinfection, HIV monoinfection, or neither infection. HIV viremia is an important risk factor for low muscle mass among coinfected persons.