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Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

Prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.
Author Information (click to view)

Basera TJ, Ncayiyana J, Engel ME,


Basera TJ, Ncayiyana J, Engel ME, (click to view)

Basera TJ, Ncayiyana J, Engel ME,

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BMJ open 2017 07 187(7) e012636 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012636

Abstract
INTRODUCTION
Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains a major public health problem and one of the major contributors to the pool of active tuberculosis cases. The true burden of LTBI in Africa is not known. Early modelling studies estimate that over 33% of the world’s population is infected with latent tuberculosis. We propose conducting a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate the burden and risk factors of LTBI in Africa reported in studies from 2000 to 2017.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS
We will include cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-control studies estimating either tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) confirmed prevalence of LTBI and associated risk factors among people in African countries. A comprehensive search of relevant literature will be conducted on electronic databases using common and medical subject heading (MeSH) terms for LTBI, and an African search filter. Risk of bias will be evaluated by assessing all qualifying full-text articles for quality and eligibility using a quality score assessment tool. Standardised data extraction will be carried out after which prevalence estimates will be pooled using random-effects models in Stata V.13. Where there is sufficient data , subgroup meta-analyses will be conducted by risk factors including participant’s age group, occupation, location and HIV status. This systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols 2015 Statement.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION
No ethical issues were foreseen given that this was a protocol for a systematic review of published studies. The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42016037997.

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