The study was done to investigate the prevalence and predictors of pseudomyopia in Chinese children and its association with myopia progression.

2612 children aged 6 years and 1984 children aged 13 years were included. Of the two cohorts, median cycloplegic SER (IQR) was 1.00 D (0.50, 1.38) and −1.13 D (−2.63, 0.13) respectively, myopia prevalence was 5.2% and 61.0%, pseudomyopia prevalence was 24.1% and 18.9%, and median pseudomyopia power was 1.13 D (0.63, 1.63) and 0.38 D (0.13, 0.88). In both cohorts, greater baseline hyperopia was the strongest predictor of pseudomyopia (p<0.001), whereas time spent on near work was not associated with pseudomyopia power (p>0.05). After 1 year, 15.6% (98/629) of 6-year-olds and 10.7% (40/374) of 13-year-olds with pseudomyopia developed myopia. Compared with myopes, pseudomyopia children with the same pre-cycloplegic SER had slower myopic progression (p<0.001). Among all 127 optometry stores in Anyang, only 4 (3.15%) used cycloplegia for refracting children.

The study concluded that Pseudomyopia is more prevalent in younger, more hyperopic children. Pseudomyopia is not an independent risk factor for myopic progression in this setting.