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Prevalence, associated factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension: Findings from a cross sectional study conducted as a part of a community based intervention trial in Surkhet, Mid-western region of Nepal.

Prevalence, associated factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension: Findings from a cross sectional study conducted as a part of a community based intervention trial in Surkhet, Mid-western region of Nepal.
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Khanal MK, Dhungana RR, Bhandari P, Gurung Y, Paudel KN,


Khanal MK, Dhungana RR, Bhandari P, Gurung Y, Paudel KN, (click to view)

Khanal MK, Dhungana RR, Bhandari P, Gurung Y, Paudel KN,

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PloS one 2017 10 0512(10) e0185806 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0185806
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Hypertension is one of the leading public health problems globally. About half of the deaths from cardiovascular diseases were attributed to hypertension in 2008. Reduction of blood pressure to normal range is one of the major challenges in preventing complications and future burden of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aims to determine prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and its associated factors in Nepal.

METHODS
This was a community based cross-sectional study conducted as a part of a community based intervention trial in Birendranagar Municipality of Surkhet district located at the Mid-western region of Nepal. We enrolled 1159 subjects aged 30 years and above. Out of 12 wards (administrative unit), four wards were selected randomly. Three hundred participants were recruited from each selected ward. Trained enumerator collected socio-demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data using standard STEPS questionnaires.

RESULTS
Out of all participants, women were 71% and mean age was 47±12.6 years. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 38.9% (95% CI: 36-41.7) while age and sex adjusted prevalence was 40.6%. The hypertension was present in 48.1% (95% CI: 45.2-50.9) of men and 35.2% (95% CI: 32.4-37.9)] of women. Male gender (OR = 1.49), older age (OR = 1.04 per year), Dalit caste (OR = 1.71), past history of cigarettes smoking (OR = 2.78), current alcohol consumption (OR = 1.75), and raised body mass index (OR = 1.17 per unit) were identified as significant factors associated with hypertension. Of total hypertensive respondents, 53.4% (95% CI: 48.7-58) were aware, 29% (95% CI: 24.8-33.1) were receiving treatment for high blood pressure, and 8.2% (95% CI: 5.6-10.7) had controlled blood pressure. The awareness, treatment, and control status were worse in younger participants.

CONCLUSIONS
The study revealed high prevalence with low awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Nepal. Gender, age, ethnicity, smoking, drinking alcohol, and body mass index were associated with hypertension. Immediate public health and individual measures are warranted to reduce future burden of cardiovascular diseases.

TRIAL REGISTRATION
ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT02981251).

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