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Prevalence, Magnitude, and Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Women on Antiretroviral Therapy.

Prevalence, Magnitude, and Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Women on Antiretroviral Therapy.
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King CC, Ellington SR, Davis NL, Coombs RW, Pyra M, Hong T, Mugo N, Patel RC, Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Kourtis AP, , ,


King CC, Ellington SR, Davis NL, Coombs RW, Pyra M, Hong T, Mugo N, Patel RC, Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Kourtis AP, , , (click to view)

King CC, Ellington SR, Davis NL, Coombs RW, Pyra M, Hong T, Mugo N, Patel RC, Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Kourtis AP, , ,

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The Journal of infectious diseases 2017 12 12() doi 10.1093/infdis/jix550

Abstract
Background
Genital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA shedding can continue despite HIV being undetectable in blood, and can be associated with transmission.

Methods
We included African women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Linear and generalized linear mixed models were used to compare the magnitude and prevalence of genital shedding, respectively, by time since ART initiation. Multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to assess predictors of genital shedding among women with undetectable plasma viral load (VL).

Results
Among 1114 women, 5.8% of visits with undetectable plasma VL and 23.6% of visits with detectable VL had genital shedding. The proportion of visits with genital shedding decreased with time since ART initiation but the magnitude of shedding remained unchanged when plasma VL was undetectable (P = .032). Prevalence of shedding did not vary by time since ART initiation when plasma VL was detectable (P = .195), though the magnitude of shedding significantly increased (P = .04). Predictors of genital shedding were HIV disease stage, antiretroviral regimen, and genital ulcers or cervical tenderness.

Discussion
In addition to ART, reducing immune activation through prevention and treatment of HIV-related conditions and genital tract infections may decrease the risk of HIV-1 shedding and potential transmission.

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