To evaluate diagnosis, prevalence and associated factors of CKD in Brazilian patients with type 1 diabetes.
This cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 14 public clinics in 10 Brazilian cities. From 1,760 patients, 1,736 were included (98.6%): 977 females (56.3%), 932 (54%) Caucasians, aged 29.9±11.9 years, age at diagnosis 14.7± 8.9 years,diabetes duration 15.5 ±9.3 years and 12.2± 3.8 years of school attendance. CKD was determined by using estimated glomerular filtration rate and by the presence of albuminuria in two out of three morning urine samples.
The prevalence of CKD was 33.7%. Overall, 28.1% of the patients could not be classified due to insufficient number of urine samples for albuminuria determination. Multivariable analysis showed that female gender, diabetes duration, high levels of HbA1c and uric acid, use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, retinopathy, high systolic blood pressure, and economic status (medium, low and very low) were associated with CKD.
Although a high prevalence of CKD, associated comorbidities and retinopathy was observed in our study, a large number of patients are still undiagnosed, making CKD a challenge in routine clinical practice in admixed populations with T1D in a developing country like Brazil.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.