Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), however prevalence in obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is not known. This study sought to compare prevalence of CKD in OHS and equally obese OSA patients with comparable apnoea hypopnoea indexes (AHI), and secondarily examine the impact of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on CKD parameters.
Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) and spot urine protein creatinine ratio (PCR) were obtained in patients with OHS (Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, PaCO2 > 45 mmHg) and OSA (AHI > 20 events per hour, PaCO2  40 kg/m. Samples were obtained at baseline and after three months of PAP in both groups.
Patients with OHS (n = 15, PaCO2 49 mmHg; daytime oxygen saturation, SpO2 94%; total sleep time with SpO2 0.5, p < 0.05) in OHS.
The prevalence of CKD, primarily early-stage with proteinuria, is at least as frequent in OHS as it is in OSA, if not worse. Markers of CKD were not significantly impacted by PAP therapy.

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