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Prevalence of hepatitis-C virus genotypes and potential transmission risks in Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Prevalence of hepatitis-C virus genotypes and potential transmission risks in Malakand Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
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Nazir N, Jan MR, Ali A, Asif M, Idrees M, Nisar M, Zahoor M, Abd El-Salam NM,


Nazir N, Jan MR, Ali A, Asif M, Idrees M, Nisar M, Zahoor M, Abd El-Salam NM, (click to view)

Nazir N, Jan MR, Ali A, Asif M, Idrees M, Nisar M, Zahoor M, Abd El-Salam NM,

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Virology journal 2017 08 2214(1) 160 doi 10.1186/s12985-017-0829-y
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and frequently progresses towards liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV genotypes and their association with possible transmission risks in the general population of Malakand Division.

METHODOLOGY
Sum of 570 serum samples were collected during March 2011 to January 2012 from suspected patients visited to different hospitals of Malakand. The suspected sera were tested using qualitative PCR and were then subjected to molecular genotype specific assay. Quantitative PCR was also performed for determination of pre-treatment viral load in confirmed positive patients.

RESULTS
Out of 570 serum samples 316 sera were seen positive while 254 sera were found negative using qualitative PCR. The positive samples were then subjected to genotyping assay out of 316, type-specific PCR fragments were seen in 271 sera while 45 samples were found untypable genotypes. Genotype 3a was seen as a predominant genotype (63.3%) with a standard error of ±2.7%. Cramer’s V statistic and Liklihood-Ratio statistical procedures are used to measure the strength and to test the association, respectively, between the dependent variable, genotype, and explanatory variables (e.g. gender, risk, age and area/districts). The dependent variable, genotype, is observed statistically significant association with variable risk factors. This implies that the genotype is highly dependent on how the patient was infected. In contrast, the other covariates, for example, gender, age, and district (area) no statistical significant association are observed. The association between gender-age indicates that the mean age of female was older by 10.5 ± 2.3 years with 95% confidence level using t-statistic.

CONCLUSION
It was concluded from the present study that the predominant genotype was 3a in the infected population of Malakand. This study also highlights the high prevalence rate of untypable genotypes which an important issue of health care setup in Malakand and create complications in therapy of infected patients. Major mode of HCV transmission is multiple uses and re-uses of needles/injections.

TRIAL REGISTRATION
ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458. Registered: 28 September 2014.

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