Overweight (Ow) and obesity among adults and children increases the risk of metabolic consequences. Metabolic syndrome (MS) and impaired glucose metabolism are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of MS and impaired glucose metabolism among Ow and obese (Ob) children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) in Lithuania, and to evaluate the associations between insulin resistance (IR) indices and anthropometric parameters as well as metabolic disturbances.
The study population consisted of 344 OwOb children and adolescents of all pubertal stages. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), IR and β cell function indices, lipid profile, and anthropometric parameters of all subjects were analyzed. MS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation consensus guidelines.
MS was found in 21.3% of the OwOb children and adolescents, and 12.1% had impaired glucose metabolism (6.9% with impaired fasting glucose, 4.5% with impaired glucose tolerance, and 0.6% with type 2 diabetes). IR was directly related to body mass index and waist circumference, waist-to-height and waist-to-hip ratios, and sum of skin-fold thicknesses. Children with MS were more insulin-resistant, had higher odds ratio for prediabetes and had a more disturbed lipid profile than subjects without MS. Moreover, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the more mature OwOb adolescents.
MS and lipid profile disturbances are common in OwOb children and adolescents. MS is directly associated with IR. Therefore, OwOb children and adolescents should be carefully followed up for metabolic abnormalities during late childhood as these can persist into adulthood.

© 2021 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
For latest news and updates