Rates of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease are rapidly increasing throughout the globe. NTM disease, as an emerging infectious disease, it is very important to summarize and analyze the prevalence and main pathogenic bacteria. However, there is no relevant report in Changchun district. In the present report, 8765 clinical samples were collected between January 2017 and December 2019, we reviewed patient electronic medical records and thereby summarized the causative species associated with NTM disease in the Changchun district of China. Of 8765 clinical samples, 1987 samples yielded positive cultures. Of these cultures, 1868 (94.01%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 37 (1.86%) were Mycobacterium bovis, and 82 (4.13%) were NTM. A total of 84 NTM strains were isolated from these 82 cultures, with Mycobacterium intracellulare being the most prevalent isolate therein (44.05%). NTM infection status was associated with location of residence [OR (95% CI) 3.92 (1.20-12.8)]. No apparent correlations were observed between cultured NTM species and patient clinical symptoms. Bronchiectasis was the most prevalent radiographic finding associated with NTM cases [OR (95% CI) 9.00 (1.27-63.89)]. In summary, NTM disease is a growing threat to global public health, and researchers and clinicians should thus focus on the appropriate identification of NTM species and the differentiation between NTM infections and tuberculosis.