This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, risk factors, and effects of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) on physical and mental health in young adults in mainland China.
An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information including the sociodemographic characteristics, history of PNE, family history, daytime voiding symptoms, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores, Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). A total of 22,500 university students from 23 provinces and 368 cities in mainland China were included.
In total, 21,082 questionnaires were collected, and 20,345 of them qualified for statistical analysis. The PNE prevalence was 1.17%, and the distribution of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) and nonmonosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NMNE) was 66.1% and 33.9%, respectively. In total, 28% of respondents with PNE reported bedwetting daily, 31.6% between 1 and 7 times weekly, and 40.4% between 1 and 4 times monthly; 80% of PNE cases had no history of treatment. The prevalence of PNE in patients with a family history, frequency, urgency, urinary incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infections was significantly higher than in those without these conditions (P<0.001). PNE was significantly correlated with the PSQI total score (sleep quality) (P=0.011). The SES score was lower and the SDS was higher (P<0.001) in the PNE group than in those without PNE.
In mainland China, the PNE prevalence among young adults was found to be high, and PNE had significant effects on physical and mental health. Risk factors included a family history, daytime voiding symptoms, and lack of treatment.