Parkinson’s disease, diabetic retinopathy, hyperoxia induced retinopathy, and neuronal damage resulting from ischemia are among the notable neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress occurs shortly before the onset of neurodegeneration. A shared feature of these diseases is the depletion of (oxidation resistance 1) gene products shortly before the onset of neurodegeneration. In animal models of these diseases, restoration of has been shown to reduce or eliminate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress induced cell death, delay the onset of symptoms, and reduce overall severity. Moreover, increasing expression in cells further increases oxidative stress resistance and delays onset of disease while showing no detectable side effects. Thus, restoring or increasing function shows promise as a therapeutic for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. This review examines the role of in oxidative stress resistance and its impact on neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the potential of OXR1 as a therapeutic in light of our current understanding of its function at the cellular and molecular level and propose a possible cascade of molecular events linked to ‘s regulatory functions.Copyright © 2020 Volkert and Crowley.