Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) represents the leading cause of irreversible blindness in elderly people, mostly after the age of 65. The progressive deterioration of visual function in patients affected by AMD has a significant impact on quality of life and has also high social costs. The current therapeutic options are only partially able to slow down the natural course of the disease, without being capable of stopping its progression. Therefore, better understanding of the possibilities to prevent the onset of the disease is needed. In this regard, a central role is played by the identification of risk factors, which might participate to the development of the disease. Among these, the most researched are dietary risk factors, lifestyle, and light exposure. Many studies showed that a higher dietary intake of nutrients, such as lutein, zeaxanthin, beta carotene, omega-3 fatty acids and zinc, reduced the risk of early AMD. Regarding lifestyle habits, the association between smoking and AMD is currently accepted. Finally, retinal damage caused by ultraviolet rays and blue light is also worthy of attention. The scope of this review is to summarize the present knowledge focusing on the measures to adopt in order to prevent the onset of AMD.