Primary atopic disorders describes a series of monogenic diseases that have allergy- or atopic effector-related symptoms as a substantial feature. The underlying pathogenic genetic lesions help illustrate fundamental pathways in atopy, opening up diagnostic and therapeutic options for further study in those patients, but ultimately for common allergic diseases as well. Key pathways affected in these disorders include T cell receptor and B cell receptor signaling, cytokine signaling, skin barrier function, and mast cell function, as well as pathways that have not yet been elucidated. While comorbidities such as classically syndromic presentation or immune deficiency are often present, in some cases allergy alone is the presenting symptom, suggesting that commonly encountered allergic diseases exist on a spectrum of monogenic and complex genetic etiologies that are impacted by environmental risk factors. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 38 is April 26, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.