Current infectious disease reports 2017 09 0719(10) 37 doi 10.1007/s11908-017-0588-3
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
The purpose of this review was to provide current data on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of primary HIV infection (PHI).
In 65 to 95% of cases, PHI causes acute retroviral syndrome presenting with unspecific flu-like symptoms. Symptomatic PHI was associated with a faster clinical and immunological progression of HIV infection. Point-of-care tests remain less sensitive than fourth-generation immunoassays (IA) in PHI, especially after tenofovir-based prophylaxis use. Early antiretroviral treatment (ART) started during PHI prevents HIV transmission and decreases viral and immunological reservoir constitution. Recommended ART regimens in PHI are combinations of tenofovir and emtricitabine with either darunavir/ritonavir, or dolutegravir. Starting ART the earliest is highly recommended for clinical, virological, immunological, and public health benefits. Reducing HIV reservoir constitution in PHI may optimize potential opportunities for future functional cure.