Fibrinogen nanofibers hold great potential for applications in wound healing and personalized regenerative medicine due to their ability to mimic the native blood clot architecture. Although versatile strategies exist to induce fibrillogenesis of fibrinogen in vitro, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and the associated length scales. Therefore, in this manuscript the current state of research on fibrinogen fibrillogenesis in vitro is reviewed. For the first time, the manifold factors leading to the assembly of fibrinogen molecules into fibers are categorized considering three main groups: substrate interactions, denaturing and non-denaturing buffer conditions. Based on the meta-analysis in the review it is concluded that the assembly of fibrinogen is driven by several mechanisms across different length scales. In these processes, certain buffer conditions, in particular the presence of salts, play a predominant role during fibrinogen self-assembly compared to the surface chemistry of the substrate material. Yet, to tailor fibrous fibrinogen scaffolds with defined structure-function-relationships for future tissue engineering applications, it still needs to be understood which particular role each of these factors plays during fiber assembly. Therefore, the future combination of experimental and simulation studies is proposed to understand the intermolecular interactions of fibrinogen, which induce the assembly of soluble fibrinogen into solid fibers.© 2021 The Authors. Macromolecular Bioscience published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.
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Paul-Ludwig Michael Noeske