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Prior exposure to corticosterone markedly enhances and prolongs the neuroinflammatory response to systemic challenge with LPS.

Prior exposure to corticosterone markedly enhances and prolongs the neuroinflammatory response to systemic challenge with LPS.
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Kelly KA, Michalovicz LT, Miller JV, Castranova V, Miller DB, O'Callaghan JP,


Kelly KA, Michalovicz LT, Miller JV, Castranova V, Miller DB, O'Callaghan JP, (click to view)

Kelly KA, Michalovicz LT, Miller JV, Castranova V, Miller DB, O'Callaghan JP,

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PloS one 2018 01 0513(1) e0190546 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0190546
Abstract

Systemic exposure to the inflammagen and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been widely used to evaluate inflammation and sickness behavior. While many inflammatory conditions occur in the periphery, it is well established that peripheral inflammation can affect the brain. Neuroinflammation, the elaboration of proinflammatory mediators in the CNS, commonly is associated with behavioral symptoms (e.g., lethargy, anhedonia, anorexia, depression, etc.) termed sickness behavior. Stressors have been shown to interact with and alter neuroinflammatory responses and associated behaviors. Here, we examined the effects of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), as a stressor mimic, on neuroinflammation induced with a single injection (2mg/kg, s.c.) or inhalation exposure (7.5 μg/m3) of LPS or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC; 12mg/kg, i.p.) in adult male C57BL/6J mice. CORT was given in the drinking water (200 mg/L) for 1 week or every other week for 90 days followed by LPS. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (TNFα, IL-6, CCL2, IL-1β, LIF, and OSM) was measured by qPCR. The activation of the neuroinflammation downstream signaling activator, STAT3, was assessed by immunoblot of pSTAT3Tyr705. The presence of astrogliosis was assessed by immunoassay of GFAP. Acute exposure to LPS caused brain-wide neuroinflammation without producing astrogliosis; exposure to CORT for 1 week caused marked exacerbation of the LPS-induced neuroinflammation. This neuroinflammatory "priming" by CORT was so pronounced that sub-neuroinflammatory exposures by inhalation instigated neuroinflammation when paired with prior CORT exposure. This effect also was extended to another common inflammagen, PIC (a viral mimic). Furthermore, a single week of CORT exposure maintained the potential for priming for 30 days, while intermittent exposure to CORT for up to 90 days synergistically primed the LPS-induced neuroinflammatory response. These findings highlight the possibility for an isolated inflammatory event to be exacerbated by a temporally distant stressful stimulus and demonstrates the potential for recurrent stress to greatly aggravate chronic inflammatory disorders.

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