Heparan sulfate (HS) can play important roles in the biology and pathology of amyloid β (Aβ), a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. To better understand the structure-activity relationship of HS/Aβ interactions, synthetic HS oligosaccharides ranging from tetrasaccharides to decasaccharides have been utilized to study Aβ interactions. Surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that the highly sulfated HS tetrasaccharides bearing full 2-, 6-, and -sulfations exhibited the strongest binding with Aβ among the tetrasaccharides investigated. Elongating the glycan length to hexa- and deca-saccharides significantly enhanced Aβ affinity compared to the corresponding HS tetrasaccharide. Solid state NMR studies of the complexes of Aβ with HS hexa- and deca-saccharides showed most significant chemical shift perturbation in the -terminus residues of Aβ. The strong binding HS oligosaccharides could reduce the cellular toxicities induced by Aβ. This study provides new insights into HS/Aβ interactions, highlighting how synthetic structurally well-defined HS oligosaccharides can assist in biological understanding of Aβ.