A strain of Alcaligenes faecalis A12C (A. faecalis A12C) isolated from Argyrosomus regius is a probiotic in fish. Previous experiments showed that A. faecalis A12C had inhibitory effects on the growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria. We aimed to confirm whether A. faecalis A12C is safe and has adequate intestinal colonization in experimental rats, and evaluate its efficacy in an animal model of peritonitis. We used 30 male rats, randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 5): three groups (HA7, HA15, HA30) received A. faecalis A12C in drinking water (6 × 10 CFU/mL) for 7 days, and three control groups received drinking water only. All groups were evaluated at 7, 15, and 30 days. Survival after A. faecalis A12C administration was 100% in all groups. Mild eosinophilia (1.5%, p < 0.01) and increased aspartate aminotransferase (86 IU/L, p < 0.05) were observed in HA7, followed by progressive normalization. No histological signs of organ injury were found. We observed significant E. coli decline in faeces, parallel to an increase in A. faecalis A12C at 7 days. E. coli had a tendency to recover initial values, while A. faecalis A12C disappeared from the intestinal microbiota at 30 days. To evaluate its efficacy against peritonitis, we studied two additional groups of animals: IA group pretreated with A. faecalis A12C before E. coli intra-abdominal inoculation, and IC group inoculated with no A. faecalis A12C. We found an increase in C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, urea, and eosinophils in IC animals when compared with IA. Peritonitis was more evident in IC than in IA animals. Our findings suggest that A. faecalis A12C altered clinically relevant parameters in sepsis and was associated with a lesser spread of infection.