Journal of neurovirology 2017 11 16() doi 10.1007/s13365-017-0599-8
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND. In the field of NeuroHIV and drug addiction, EVs hold the potential to serve as biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction, targets of therapy, and as vehicles for therapeutic delivery of agents that can ameliorate disease pathogenesis. Based on the success of a previous Satellite Symposium in 2015 at the ISEV meeting in Washington, experts again expanded on their latest research findings in the field, shedding light on the emerging trends in the field of Extracellular Vesicle (EV) biology in NeuroHIV and drug abuse. The satellite symposium sought to align experts in the fields of NeuroHIV and drug abuse to share their latest insights on the role of EVs in regulating neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, peripheral immune response, and HIV latency in HIV-infected individuals with or without the comorbidity of drug abuse.