In 2017, an updated European LeukemiaNet (ELN) risk classification was published allocating patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to 3 risk groups on the basis of certain cytogenetic and molecular aberrations. To date, studies of the prognostic significance of the ELN2017 risk classification in the context of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are lacking. We performed risk stratification according to the ELN2017 classification in 234 patients with AML who underwent allogeneic HSCT as a consolidation therapy. In our cohort, the risk of 39.7% of the patients was classified as favorable, that of 12.8% as intermediate, and that of 47.4% as adverse. In the context of allogeneic HSCT, the assignment to the 3 ELN2017 risk groups retained its prognostic significance, with patients with favorable risk having the best prognosis and those with adverse risk having the worst one. Subgroup analyses showed that patients with a monosomal karyotype or TP53 mutation had considerably increased relapse rates, even in the adverse-risk group. When we analyzed the impact of digital droplet PCR-based measurable residual disease (MRD) before allogeneic HSCT, MRD+ patients had impaired prognoses, with cumulative incidence of relapse and overall survival comparable to those of patients classified as having an ELN2017 adverse genetic risk. This study is the first to demonstrate that the ELN2017 classification distinguishes the 3 risk groups with significantly distinct prognoses, even after allogeneic HSCT, and emphasizes the dismal prognosis of patients with AML with TP53 mutations, monosomal karyotype, or MRD positivity after allogeneic HSCT.
© 2020 by The American Society of Hematology.

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