The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize existing evidence about the prognostic value of LV apical aneurysm in patients with HCM.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) represents a common inherited heart disease associated with enormous diversity in morphologic expression and clinical course. With the increasing penetration of advanced high resolution cardiovascular imaging into routine HCM practice, a subset of HCM patients with left ventricular (LV) apical aneurysm have become more widely recognized.
Medline was searched for studies describing the prognostic implication of LV apical aneurysm in patients with HCM. In the main analysis the combined endpoint of major HCM-related outcomes was assessed. Separate analyses for sudden cardiac death (SCD) events and thromboembolic events were also performed.
Six studies comprising of 2382 patients met the inclusion criteria. In the pooled analysis, the presence of LV apical aneurysm was significantly associated with major adverse outcomes (pooled OR: 5.13, 95 CI: 2.85 to 9.23, I:31%), increased risk of SCD arrhythmic events (pooled OR: 4.67, 95% CI: 2.30 to 9.48, I: 38%) and thromboembolic events (pooled OR: 6.30, 95% CI: 1.52 to 26.19, I: 66%).
These data demonstrate that LV apical aneurysm in HCM patients is associated with an increased risk for SCD events and thromboembolism. This finding might encourage the inclusion of LV apical aneurysm into the HCM SCD risk stratification algorithm as a novel risk marker that supports consideration for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator and anticoagulation for stroke prophylaxis.

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