American journal of hypertension 2016 Nov 12() pii hpw145
The independent prognostic significance of nondipping and morning surge (MS) of blood pressure (BP) in treated hypertensive patients with controlled ambulatory BP is not yet clear. We investigated the association between the aforesaid ambulatory BP parameters and cardiovascular risk in elderly treated hypertensive patients with normal achieved ambulatory BP.
The occurrence of a composite end-point (stroke, coronary events, heart failure, and peripheral revascularization) was evaluated in 391 elderly treated hypertensive patients (age range 60-90 years) with controlled ambulatory BP (both daytime BP <135/85 mm Hg and nighttime BP <120/70 mm Hg). According to nighttime change and MS of systolic BP, subjects were divided in dippers with normal or high MS (>23 mm Hg) and nondippers.
During the follow-up (9.3 ± 4.6 years, range 0.5-20 years), 76 events occurred. The event-rate was 2.09 per 100 patient-years. After adjustment for age, gender, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, asymptomatic LV systolic dysfunction at baseline and left atrial enlargement, dippers with high MS (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.27-4.73, P = 0.007) and nondippers (hazard ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.53, P = 0.01) were at higher cardiovascular risk than dippers with normal MS.
In elderly treated hypertensive patients with normal achieved ambulatory BP, dippers with high MS and nondippers are at increased cardiovascular risk.