Despite significant advances in novel treatments and approaches, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally. Gene therapy is a promising option for many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. In the last 30 years, gene therapy has slowly proceeded towards clinical translation and recently reached US Food and Drug Administration approval for several diseases such as Leber congenital amaurosis and spinal muscular atrophy, among others. Previous attempts at developing gene therapies for cardiovascular diseases have yielded promising results in preclinical studies and early-phase clinical trials. However, larger trials failed to demonstrate consistent benefits in patients with ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In this review, we summarize the history and current status of clinical cardiac gene therapy. Starting with angiogenic gene therapy, we also cover more recent gene therapy trials for heart failure and cardiomyopathies. New programs are actively vying to be the first to get Food and Drug Administration approval for a cardiac gene therapy product by taking advantage of novel techniques.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.