The global morbidity of cancer is rising rapidly. Despite advances in molecular biology, immunology, and cytotoxic and immune-anticancer therapies, cancer remains a major cause of death worldwide. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12) is a new member of the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase family, isolated from a cDNA library of adult colon tissue. Thus far, no studies have reviewed the correlation between PTPN12 gene expression and human tumors.
This article summarizes the latest domestic and international research developments on how the expression of PTPN12 relates to human tumors. The extensive search in Web of Science and PubMed with the keywords including PTPN12, tumor, renal cell carcinoma, proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes was undertaken.
More and more studies have shown that a tumor is essentially a genetic disease, arising from a broken antagonistic function between proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. When their antagonistic effect is out of balance, it may cause uncontrolled growth of cells and lead to the occurrence of tumors. PTPN12 is a tumor suppressor gene, so inhibiting its activity will lead directly or indirectly to the occurrence of tumors.
The etiology, prevention, and treatment of tumors have become the focus of research around the world. PTPN12 is a tumor suppressor gene. In the future, PTPN12 might serve as a novel molecular marker to benefit patients, and even the development of tumor suppressor gene activation agents can form a practical research direction.