To determine the concentrations of vitreous proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis-related growth cytokines in highly myopic (HM) patients and controls.
Vitreous humor (VH) was obtained from patients during vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), myopic retinoschisis (MRS), idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM), or macular hole (MH). High myopia was defined as an axial length (AL) of ≥26.0 mm and a spherical equivalent refractive error more negative than -6.0 D. A multiplex fluorescent-bead-based immunoassay was employed to measure the levels of 29 designated cytokines. The results were compared across groups.
Seventy-eight VH samples were collected from 78 patients (36 HM versus 42 controls). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was significantly higher in the VH samples from HM patients than in those from the controls. Five inflammation-related factors, interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL6), IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), eotaxin, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), were significantly higher in the HM group than in the control group. The vitreous concentrations of well-known angiogenic growth factors monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) and IL5 were significantly elevated in the VH samples from HM patients.
Proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic growth factors were elevated in the VH of HM patients, suggesting that an elevated inflammatory status and higher levels of angiogenic factors are present in eyes with HM.

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