Acta biomaterialia 2017 01 10() pii S1742-7061(17)30033-8
We hypothesize that periodically early, local suppression of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are potent inflammatory mediators, can reduce the fibrotic capsular contracture around silicone implants. We tested this hypothesis with the silicone implants enabled with the sustained release of montelukast, a CysLT receptor antagonist, for 3 and 15 days. In this work, we inserted each of the distinct implants into the pocket of the subpanniculus carnosus plane of living rats and performed histological and immunofluorescent (IF) analyses of the tissues biopsied at predetermined periods for 12 weeks after implant insertion. The implants with montelukast exhibited significantly reduced polymorphonuclear leukocytes (i.e., PMNs), implying a concurrent reduction of CysLT. This effect was more prominent after long-term local montelukast exposure. Thus, fewer fibroblasts were recruited, thereby reducing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and myofibroblasts in the tissue around the implant. Therefore, the fibrotic capsule formation, which was assessed using the capsule thickness and collagen density, decreased along with the myofibroblasts. Additionally, the tissue biopsied at the experimental end point exhibited significantly decreased mechanical stiffness.
STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
Capsular contracture is troublesome, making the tissues hardened around the silicone implant. This causes serious pain and discomfort to the patients, often leading to secondary surgery for implant replacement. To resolve this, we suggest a strategy of long-term, local suppression of cysteinyl leukotriene, an important mediator present during inflammation. For this, we propose a silicone implant abled to release a drug, montelukast, in a sustained manner. We tested our drug-release implant in living animals, which exhibited a significant decrease in capsule formation compared with the intact silicone implant. Therefore, we conclude that the sustained release of montelukast at the local insertion site represents a promising way to reduce capsular contracture around silicone implants.