Despite correction of underlying solid organ failure by transplantation, pediatric transplant recipients still have increased mortality rates compared to the general pediatric population, in part due to increased cardiovascular risk. In particular, pediatric kidney and non-kidney transplant recipients with chronic kidney disease have significant cardiovascular risk that worsens with declining kidney function. Biomarkers associated with future cardiovascular risk such as casual and ambulatory hypertension, dyslipidemia, vascular stiffness and calcification, and left ventricular hypertrophy can be detected throughout the post-transplant period and in patients with stable kidney function. Among these, hypertension and dyslipidemia are two potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factors that are highly prevalent in kidney and non-kidney pediatric transplant recipients. Standardized approaches to appropriate BP measurement and lipid monitoring are needed to detect and address these risk factors in a timely fashion. To achieve sustained improvement in cardiovascular health, clinicians should partner with patients and their caregivers to address these and other risk factors with a combined approach that integrates pharmacologic with non-pharmacologic approaches. This review outlines the scope and impact of hypertension and dyslipidemia in pediatric transplant recipients, with a particular focus on pediatric kidney transplantation given the high burden of chronic kidney disease-associated cardiovascular risk. We also review the current published guidelines for monitoring and managing abnormalities in blood pressure and lipids, highlighting the important role of therapeutic lifestyle changes in concert with antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications.
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