We report the case of a patient who developed antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) after receiving the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine BNT162b (Pfizer-BioNTech). A 37-year-old Japanese woman had been taking propylthiouracil for Graves’ disease. She had erythema on her forearm on the 12th day after receiving the first dose of the vaccine, fever on the 13th day, and redness and swelling of her left auricle on the 25th day. Her serum myeloperoxidase-ANCA and proteinase 3-ANCA levels, which were negative before the Graves’ disease treatment, were elevated. She had unilateral auricular symptoms but no other typical relapsing polychondritis findings. She was diagnosed with propylthiouracil-induced AAV. She was treated with oral glucocorticoids, and her symptoms improved. Propylthiouracil is considered to be the main cause of the onset of AAV in this case, but it cannot be ruled out that BNT162b may have had some effect on the onset of the disease. Although the development of propylthiouracil-induced AAV in this case may have been incidental and unrelated to the vaccination, this report provides important data for evaluating the safety of the vaccine.