The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 2016 11 2296(2) 285-291 doi 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0432
Coinfection with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to frequent treatment failure, relapse, and death. In this retrospective analysis from eastern India (2005-2015), our primary objective was to ascertain the protective efficacy of secondary prophylaxis with monthly amphotericin B (AmB) given in patients with HIV-VL coinfection toward reducing relapse and mortality rates. The secondary objective was to compare clinical features, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes in HIV-VL patients in contrast to VL monoinfection. Overall, 53 cases of HIV-VL and 460 cases of VL monoinfection were identified after excluding incomplete records. Initial cure rate was 96.23% in HIV-VL (27 received liposomal AmB and 26 AmB deoxycholate). All patients with initial cure (N = 51) were given antiretroviral therapy. Secondary prophylaxis (N = 27) was provided with monthly 1 mg/kg AmB (15 liposomal, 12 deoxycholate). No relapse or death was noted within 6 months in the secondary prophylaxis group (relapse: none versus 18/24 [75%]; mortality: none versus 11/24 [45.8%]; P < 0.001 for both). Secondary prophylaxis remained the sole significant predictor against death in multivariate Cox regression model (hazard ratio = 0.09 [95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.31]; P < 0.001). HIV-VL patients had higher 6-month relapse rate, less relapse-free 12-month survival, and higher mortality (P < 0.001 each) than VL monoinfection. In conclusion, it appears from this study that secondary prophylaxis with monthly AmB might be effective in preventing relapse and mortality in HIV-VL.