The thrombopoietin receptor agonist romiplostim (RP) is a therapeutic agent for immune thrombocytopenia that can achieve complete survival in mice exposed to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation. The estimated mechanism of the radio-protective/mitigative effects of RP has been proposed; however, the detailed mechanism of action remains unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of the radio-protective/mitigative effects of RP, the fluctuation of protein in the blood was analyzed by proteomics. Eight-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 5 groups; control at day 0, total-body irradiation (TBI) groups at day 10 and day 18, and TBI plus RP groups at day 10 and day18, consisting of 3 mice per group, and subjected to TBI with 7 Gy of Cs γ-rays at dose rate of 0.74 Gy/min. RP was administered intraperitoneally to mice at a dose of 50 µg/kg once daily for 3 days starting 2 hours after TBI. On day 10 and day 18 after TBI, serum collected from each mouse was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were identified by proteomics methods from 269 analyzed proteins detected in mice exposed to a lethal dose of TBI: keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), cytosolic 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (ALDH1L1), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT), glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), regucalcin (RGN), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB) and betain-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 1 (BHMT). On the 10th day after TBI, KRT1 was significantly increased ( < 0.05) by 4.26-fold compared to the control group in the TBI group and significantly inhibited in the TBI plus RP group ( < 0.05) (Fig. 3A, Table 5). Similarly, the expression levels of other 8 proteins detected at 18th day after TBI were significantly increased by 4.29 to 27.44-fold in the TBI group, but significantly decreased in the TBI plus RP group compared to the TBI group, respectively. Nine proteins were identified by proteomics methods from 269 analyzed proteins detected in mice exposed to a lethal dose of TBI. These proteins are also expected to be indicators of the damage induced by high-dose radiation.