Frailty is common in patients with CKD. Little is known about the prevalence of frailty and its effect on prognosis and decisions surrounding dialysis modalities in patients with advanced CKD (eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m). Our objective was to determine the agreement between different frailty measures and physical function and their association with dialysis modality choice (home based versus in-center) and all-cause mortality in patients with advanced CKD.
Our study was a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. In 603 patients with advanced CKD, we collected demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory results in addition to objective (Fried frailty criteria) and subjective measures of frailty (physician and nurse impressions) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery). Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of frailty with dialysis modality choice and all-cause mortality, respectively.
The prevalence of frailty varied with assessment tool used (Fried frailty criteria, 34%; Short Physical Performance Battery, 55%; physician impression, 44%; nurse impression, 36%). The agreement between all frailty and physical function measures was poor. We had 227 patients reach kidney failure and decide on a dialysis therapy, and 226 patients died during a mean follow-up of 1455 days. After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbid conditions, the Fried criteria and Short Physical Performance Battery were associated with a two-fold higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.47 to 2.61 and hazard ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval,1.42 to 2.76, respectively). Patients deemed as frail by physician and nurse frailty impressions were three to four times more likely to choose in-center dialysis (odds ratio, 3.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.56 to 7.44; odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.76 to 8.51, respectively).
We found that the agreement between objective and subjective measures of frailty and physical function was poor. Objective measures of frailty and physical function were associated with mortality, and subjective measures of frailty were associated with dialysis modality choice.
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