A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 7,735,491 persons, with data on the dispensing of drugs for obstructive airway diseases in the Netherlands in 2016. Exposure was based on distances between home addresses and farms and on modelled atmospheric particulate matter (PM) concentrations from livestock farms. Data were analysed for different regions by logistic regression analyses and adjusted for several individual-level variables, as well as modelled PM concentration of non-farm-related air pollution. Results for individual regions were subsequently pooled in meta-analyses.
The probability of medication for asthma or COPD being dispensed to adults and children was lower with decreasing distance of their homes to livestock farms, particularly cattle and poultry farms. Increased concentrations of PM from cattle were associated with less dispensing of medications for asthma or COPD, as well (meta-analysis OR for 10th-90th percentile increase in concentration of PM from cattle farms, 95%CI: 0.92, 0.86-0.97 for adults). However, increased concentrations of PM from non-farm sources were positively associated (meta-analysis OR for 10th-90th percentile increase in PM-concentration, 95%CI: 1.29, 1.09-1.52 for adults).
The results show that the probability of dispensing medication for asthma or COPD is inversely associated with proximity to livestock farms and modelled exposure to livestock-related PM in multiple regions within the Netherlands. This finding implies a notable prevented risk: under the assumption of absence of livestock farms in the Netherlands, an estimated 2%-5% more persons (an increase in tens of thousands) in rural areas would receive asthma or COPD medication.
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